SBL Style


Beginning in the fall 2012, HIU’s Graduate Ministry Program adopted the SBL Handbook of Style for research paper citations. Students may need to purchase a personal copy of the book or click on the links to download the full version and the student version of the style guide:

Two Options

There are two ways to cite sources: parenthetical and footnotes. Endnotes should never be used. Bible references (e.g., Rom 3:23) and ancient/primary sources (e.g., Josephus, Philo, etc.) ALWAYS should be parenthetical – see below for full explanation. Students should use SBL Style to either cite secondary sources either parenthetically or in footnotes.

  1. Option 1: Click here to learn about SBL Style Parenthetical (easier).
  2. Option 2: Click here to learn about SBL Style Footnotes (advanced).